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Water Brake Dynamometer

An engine dynamometer is a service tool that allows the operator to safely place a controlled load on an engine. A loaded engine test is the only method of verifying engine capability. With the use of a dyno, an engine can be properly operated throughout its power range without being placed into service. Assembly
deficiencies may be detected before the engine is installed into a chassis and an actual evaluation of an engine’s operating condition may be performed. The dynamometer is the final quality test before an engine is installed.
A dynamometer has two major components: the absorption unit
and the torque indication system. A water brake dynamometer uses
an absorption unit (absorber) to absorb power through momentum
exchange; using water as the working fluid. A water brake absorber
consists of one or more shaft mounted rotors and at least two stators
(or end bells). The rotors spin freely inside the absorber housing in
the absence of water. When water is introduced into the absorber, the
spinning rotor accelerates the water and “throws” it into the stators. If
the stators weren’t restrained, they would also begin to rotate, similar
to a torque converter. But the stators are restrained using a torque
arm that is connected to a load cell.

The load cell measures the force with which the stators are trying to rotate.

By knowing the distance from the axis of the absorber to the torque arm, torque can be measured by: T = F x d
If we measure speed, horsepower can then be found by the relationship: HP = (T x rpm)/5252

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